Por equipe Prosperidade Consultlria
O Brasil está imerso em um debate político profundo e multifacetado cuja conclusão determinará nosso futuro por muitas décadas. As discussões incluem temas tão diversos quanto corrupção, flexibilização da legislação do trabalho, políticas de promoção social, apoio ao empreendedorismo, gigantismo e dirigismo estatista (ou, ao contrário, estado mínimo e normativo), a insana estrutura fiscal, a insuportável mentalidade cartorial, a asfixiante burocracia, o ineficiente e custoso estado brasileiro, e assim por diante. Quase sempre esses temas são discutidos de forma individualizada mas o fato é que todas estas variáveis estão umbilicalmente ligadas e precisam repensadas e replanejadas de modo holístico
Há 10 anos a Ambrosetti produz o EU-28, Índice de Competitividade relativo à 28 Nações Europeias. Os resultados da edição de 2015 fornecem lições importantíssimas para países como o Brasil que tem a oportunidade histórica de se redesenhar de cima a baixo. Os dados indicam claramente que o chamado Modelo Nórdico de gestão pública é o que trouxe melhores benefícios à população a longo prazo. No Brasil sempre se fala dos países nórdicos. Admiramos seu progresso, civilização e bem-estar social. Mas do que realmente é composto este Modelo Nórdico? Apresentamos a seguir uma síntese do modelo e porque ele vem gerando resultados tão bons. A versão completa, em inglês ou italiano, está disponível no site da empresa: www.ambrosetti.eu.
The EU-28 Competitiveness Index is a tool prepared by The European House – Ambrosetti that measures the current level of competitiveness of the EU-28 Member States. The index identifies 10 Competitiveness Factors (CF) and 55 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Each country’s performance for each KPI is evaluated from a competitiveness standpoint: for each KPI, the best performer among the EU-28 MS received a score of 10 (max score) and the worst performer received a score of 1 (min score). The remaining MS’ scores varied between 1 and 10, according to their relative performance.
The Observatory on Europe’s EU-28 Competitiveness Index clearly shows 4 geographical clusters, characterized by different competitiveness levels: Northern European countries are the most competitive, followed by Western, Eastern and finally Southern European countries.
An analysis of the Nordic countries’ competitiveness shows that they outperform the EU average in 41 of the 55 analyzed key performance indicators.
The main competitiveness factors for these countries are related to:
Innovation and Education: Nordic countries are the biggest spenders in R&D across Europe (more than 3% of their GDP) with the highest share of private investments (90%) in the EU. In 2012 they submitted more than 200 patent applications per million inhabitants to the European Patent Office. All of these countries have designed a long-term strategy for innovation. Their leadership in this area is a result of different combinations of the elements that constitute the ecosystem for innovation:
- Denmark’s research and innovation system benefits from strong scientific production, which is a result of a high level of funding, top-notch human resources and international scientific cooperation.
- Finnish technology policy had started to move towards information technology in the 1980s when the government established the Science and Technology Policy Council and the National Technology Agent in order to co-ordinate the planning of policy on innovation and provide funding. Finland’s leadership in Information Technology is also due to a network of vibrant centers of excellence.
- The Swedish research and innovation system is characterized by a dominating private sector. In addition, Sweden is among the most knowledge-intensive countries in the world, with over 42% of the work force employed in knowledge-intensive activities..
- Innovation is sustained by early-stage venture capital.
All Nordic countries offers equal educational opportunities for all citizens. The Nordic countries have policies to encourage gender equality and to support students from lower socio-economic groups to enter universities. All the Nordic countries provide higher education free of charge for their own citizens. These countries were the first to introduce entrepreneurship courses in education programs. Nordic countries are in broad political agreement on the desirability of investing in education and training all the way up to pension age.
Labour Market: The Nordic countries invest more than others in active labor market policies in the form of job intermediation as well as training and subsidized employment. High employment is possible due to well-designed stabilization policies as well as structures and institutions that are conducive to low unemployment. The main feature of the Nordics’ policies is flexibility in hiring and firing. Active labor market policies offer guidance to the unemployed by providing education courses and training for new placement (skills development and in-job training and lifelong learning). Nordic countries have consistently favored and continue to promote gender equality, encouraging the female labour supply through child care facilities, relatively generous child-related benefits, etc.: this has made it possible to combine work careers and childbearing.
People & Wellbeing: The Nordic countries come out on top in terms of combining a high standard of living with equality and an extensive public sector. The social security net has a central role in the Nordic welfare model: everyone has the individual right to assistance from the public sector if they are unable to look after themselves. In these countries, public sector support is designed to facilitate the maintenance of a reasonable and decent standard of living: as a result, the basic level of Nordic social benefits is high compared to other countries. The main elements of Nordic welfare include health insurance, unemployment insurance, social security and pensions for both early and later retirement.
Public Sector: The Nordic countries have a long legal history of open access to government information. Each Nordic country has unique data registries containing valuable, reliable information, compiled over many years, on illnesses, economic and social conditions, family structure, and migration of their respective populations. The Nordic countries have an exceptionally low level of corruption, which is essential for confidence in authorities and the acceptability of redistributive policies. Nordic citizens’ trust in government allows exhaustive use of registry data in governing the welfare state. Information exchange is characterized by accessibility, openness and transparency.
Networks: The Nordic countries have a strong tradition of a well-developed hard and, in particular, digital infrastructure. The Nordic region is also well advanced in green technology, which is predicted to become one of the key competitive factors in the global market in the future. The Nordic region offers a business-friendly environment with access to dynamic markets: domestic, Nordic and European.
Final Wrap Up – Denmark
- Denmark has the highest expenditure on higher education as a percentage of GDP and has laid the groundwork for high levels of technological adoption and innovation. The Danish workforce has the skills needed to adapt rapidly to a changing environment.
- Denmark is a knowledge-based society with leading industry and research in areas such as greentech, biotech, pharmaceutical sciences, telecommunications, IT, and design.
- Denmark continues to distinguish itself in labour market policies, investing more than all other EU countries. With flexicuritythe country has one of the most efficient labour markets internationally, with flexible regulations, strong labour-employer relations, and a very high percentage of women in the labour force.
- The country adopted policies to encourage the transition of sick and disabled workers into employment.
- Denmark benefits from a well-functioning and highly transparent institutional framework with the lowest level of corruption in the world.
Final wrap up – Finland
- The Finnish government has been promoting an ambitious structural reform package, aimed at consolidating municipal finances, raising the efficiency of public services, extending working careers, lowering structural unemployment, and lifting potential output.
- Finland’s biggest success factor is its capacity to innovate and very high public and private R&D investments with very strong links between universities and industry coupled with an excellent education and training system and one of the highest levels of technological readiness.
- Finland continues to exhibit highly transparent public institutions and high-quality infrastructure
Final wrap up -Sweden
- The country has been placing significant emphasis on creating the conditions for innovation-led growth.
- Efficiency and transparency of public institutions are particularly high and they constitute attractive factors of the Swedish economy.
- Combined with a strong focus on education over the years and a forward-looking attitude towards technological change, Sweden has developed an advanced business cultureand is one of the world’s leading innovators.
- The country shows a stable macroeconomic environment, with a balanced budget and manageable public debt levels. Combined, these features make Sweden one of the most productive and competitive economies in the world.
- The country is characterised by notable social protection and is one of the most equal societies in the world.
A Prosperidade Consultoria é uma empresa fundada em 1994. Com amplo histórico de projetos em estratégia corporativa, internacionalização de negócios, modernização gerencial e processos de transformação empresarial, a Prosperidade vem se consolidando como consultoria de excelência em temáticas emergentes, dentre as quais inclusão, diversidade e mercados micro-segmentados. A The European House – Ambrosetti é o quarto mais importante Think Tank Europeu (https://www.ambrosetti.eu/)